8 The LORD said to Moses and Aaron, 9 "When Pharaoh says to you, 'Perform a miracle,' then say to Aaron, 'Take your staff and throw it down before Pharaoh,' and it will become a snake."
10 So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and did just as the LORD commanded. Aaron threw his staff down in front of Pharaoh and his officials, and it became a snake. 11 Pharaoh then summoned wise men and sorcerers, and the Egyptian magicians also did the same things by their secret arts: 12 Each one threw down his staff and it became a snake. But Aaron's staff swallowed up their staffs. 13 Yet Pharaoh's heart became hard and he would not listen to them, just as the LORD had said.
14 Then the LORD said to Moses, "Pharaoh's heart is unyielding; he refuses to let the people go. 15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning as he goes out to the river. Wait on the bank of the Nile to meet him, and take in your hand the staff that was changed into a snake. 16 Then say to him, 'The LORD, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to say to you: Let my people go, so that they may worship me in the wilderness. But until now you have not listened. 17 This is what the LORD says: By this you will know that I am the LORD: With the staff that is in my hand I will strike the water of the Nile, and it will be changed into blood. 18 The fish in the Nile will die, and the river will stink; the Egyptians will not be able to drink its water.' "
19 The LORD said to Moses, "Tell Aaron, 'Take your staff and stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt—over the streams and canals, over the ponds and all the reservoirs—and they will turn to blood.' Blood will be everywhere in Egypt, even in the wooden buckets and stone jars."
20 Moses and Aaron did just as the LORD had commanded. He raised his staff in the presence of Pharaoh and his officials and struck the water of the Nile, and all the water was changed into blood. 21 The fish in the Nile died, and the river smelled so bad that the Egyptians could not drink its water. Blood was everywhere in Egypt.
22 But the Egyptian magicians did the same things by their secret arts, and Pharaoh's heart became hard; he would not listen to Moses and Aaron, just as the LORD had said. 23 Instead, he turned and went into his palace, and did not take even this to heart. 24 And all the Egyptians dug along the Nile to get drinking water, because they could not drink the water of the river.
Have you ever been in an accident or tragedy, in a crowd, that happened quickly? Later when police or news reporters pull together the evidence, everyone saw a piece of the activity. Stories conflict & people saw things differently. We were once in a car accident and it became a hit and run. I wrote down the license plate and the color of the truck, witnesses wrote down another license plate and had the wrong color of the truck.
Or another example, someone tells you someone looks very similar to someone else. Usually, the person being told doesn’t even see the resemblance.
The Ipuwer Papyrus in Dutch National Museum of Antiquities, the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in Leiden, Netherlands was written by someone very upset when the government couldn’t control or maintain Egypt during a set of tragedies. The writer of the papyrus (it is dated from 1850 BC to 1300 BC depending on the source of age determiner) doesn’t see God of the Universe, but unbelievable change, social upheaval, loss of the Pharaoh as never before, loss of livestock & food, then former slaves were given gold from their former masters. And another plague is also identified, convincing many of the validity of this document as an Egyptian eyewitness account of the Exodus. The water of the Nile became blood.
History of the Exodus isn’t readily acknowledged, leaving people of faith confused. But just as statistics can be quoted to prove any point, people of faith should understand what evidence is available the Exodus did occur.
EXODUS 7:21 ... there was blood thoughout all the land of Egypt
PAPYRUS 2:5-6 Plague is throughout the land. Blood is everywhere.
EXODUS 7:20 ... all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood.
PAPYRUS 2:10 The river is blood.
EXODUS 7:24 And all the Egyptians digged round about the river for water to drink; for they could not drink of the water of the river.
PAPYRUS 2:10 Men shrink from tasting -- human beings, and thirst after water.
EXODUS 7:21 ... and the river stank.
PAPYRUS 3:10-13 That is our water! That is our happiness! What shall we do in respect thereof? All is ruin!
For more of the comparisons to the 10 plagues, here is the translation of the Ipuwer Papyrus: